Turabian Referencing
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Introducing Turabian Referencing

If you’re a student, you may be asked to use “Turabian referencing” in your work. This system gets its name from Kate L. Turabian, who wrote A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. But what is it? And how does it work?

In essence, “Turabian” style referencing is a version of Chicago referencing. In fact, they are the same. It’s simply that A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations focuses entirely on information for students and academics, while The Chicago Manual of Style covers other types of writing as well.

As a result, Turabian referencing encompasses two distinct styles:

  • Notes and bibliography style – In this version of Turabian referencing, you cite sources in footnotes, while also giving full source information in a bibliography.
  • Author–date style – In this version, you cite sources in brackets in the main text, then give source information in a reference list.

At Proofed, we use the notes and bibliography version of this system as a default. But we can also work with the author–date version, so let us know if you have a preferred style.

Turabian Proofreading Services

If you are asked to use Turabian referencing in a document, make sure to have it proofread by an expert. We have dozens of academic proofreading specialists with expert knowledge of Turabian and Chicago style referencing, so just let us know how we can help.

How To Select Turabian Referencing

When you upload a document, select “Turabian” from the drop-down menu. This tells us which citation style to use when we check your work.

Selecting Harvard Referencing For Proofreading

If you would prefer us to use the author–date version of Turabian referencing, or if you have any other instructions for your editor, let us know via the comment box.

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Footnote Citations In Turabian Referencing

If you are using the notes and bibliography version of Turabian referencing, you will cite sources in footnotes. These are indicated via a superscript number in the text:

The number one after the period in the sentence above, for instance, would point to the first footnote in a document. And this is where you would cite the source.

The content of the footnote would then depend on the source type. For example, a Turabian footnote for a book would look like this:

As shown here, you will need to provide full publication information the first time you cite a source, as well as a pinpoint citation for the part of the book cited (e.g., pages 2–3 above).

At the end of your document, meanwhile, you will need to list every source you’ve cited in a bibliography. The format here is similar to the first footnote citation, except:

  • Authors’ surnames are given before first names
  • You will use full stops instead of commas between each main element (e.g., to separate the author’s name, the title, and the publication information)
  • You do not need a pinpoint citation in the bibliography

For instance, the book above would be listed as follows:

Author–Date Citations In Turabian Referencing

As mentioned above, Turabian referencing also permits parenthetical citations. With this version of the system, you cite a source by giving the author’s name and a year of publication in brackets within the main text (not in a footnote). For instance:

In the example above, the citation is at the end of the clause. This is standard unless you name the author in the text, in which case you would cite the source immediately after:

And if you were quoting a source, you would include a page number or range as well. The citation below, for example, is for a quote from page 43 of the Levey source:

Furthermore, while the footnote version of Turabian uses a “bibliography,” the author–date version prefers a “reference list.” This is, however, essentially the same thing: i.e., a list at the end of your document that includes every source cited in your work.

The correct format in the reference list depends on the source type, but it should include full publication information. You would list the book cited above, for instance, as follows:

And as you may have noticed, the only difference between this and the format used in the footnote version of Turabian referencing is the placement of the year of publication.

Turabian Bibliographies And Reference Lists

As mentioned above, Turabian referencing requires you to document sources in a bibliography or reference list. The rules for formatting this list are as follows:

  • Start the bibliography/reference list on a new page at the end of your document
  • Title this page “Bibliography” (footnotes) or “Reference List” (author–date citations)
  • List sources alphabetically by author surname
  • Use single spacing, but with a blank line after each entry
  • Add a half-inch (1.27cm) hanging indent for each line after the first in each entry
  • Place titles of essays, book chapters, and other short publications in quote marks
  • Italicize titles of books and other standalone publications
  • Capitalize all nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in titles, but not conjunctions, prepositions, or articles unless they’re the first word in a title or subtitle

After that, it’s just a case of making sure that all sources are cited with full publication information. To find the correct format for different source types, try the posts on Chicago referencing on our blog, as these will also work for Turabian. In addition, you can find Chicago’s own Turabian citation guide here.

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Need a proofreader who knows Turabian referencing? Why not give our service a try for free? Simply upload a 500-word sample of your writing and use the code 500FREE at checkout.

Other Referencing Styles

As well as Turabian referencing, our proofreaders are experts with the following styles:

Harvard • APA • OSCOLA • MLA

IEEE • Chicago • MHRA• Vancouver

Oxford • AGLC • AMA

If you are using a referencing style not listed here, though, we can still help. Just let us know which system to use when you upload your work.