Chicago Referencing
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Introducing Chicago Referencing

The Chicago Manual of Style (sometimes known as CMoS) is a style guide published by the University of Chicago Press. Within, you will find information on two referencing styles:

  • Notes and bibliography style – Sources are cited in footnotes at the bottom of the page, with full source information given in a bibliography at the end of the document
  • Author–date style – Sources are cited in brackets within the main text, with full source information given in a reference list

At Proofed, we use the notes and bibliography system from the 17th edition of CMoS as a default. This is also the version used by most colleges and universities. But we can work with the author–date version, too, so let us know if you have a preferred style.

Chicago Referencing Proofreading Services

Have you been asked to use Chicago referencing in a document? Make sure your citations are error free with our academic proofreading services. We have expert editors who can check the referencing in your documents, including both author–date and footnote citation styles.

How To Select Chicago Referencing

To set your chosen referencing style, select “Chicago” from the drop-down menu when you upload a document. This will tell us which citation style to use when we check your work.

If you would like us to use Chicago author–date referencing while we proofread your document, let us know by leaving a comment in the text box here.

Footnote Citations In Chicago Referencing

In the notes and bibliography version of Chicago referencing, you cite a source by giving a superscript number in the text. For example:

This points to a footnote at the bottom of the page, which is where you provide source details. The content of a footnote will depend on the source type, but it would usually look like this:

The footnote above is for a book. As it is the first citation of the source, we have given full publication information. At the end of the footnote, moreover, we include a pinpoint citation to show the reader which part of the book we have cited (i.e., pages 2–3).

Citations are accompanied by an entry in a bibliography at the end of the document. This is usually similar to the first footnote citation of the source. The main differences are:

  • The author’s names are inverted (surname goes first)
  • The punctuation is a little different
  • There is no need to give a pinpoint citation
  • Each line after the first should be indented

For instance, we would list the book cited above as follows:

Author–Date Citations In Chicago Referencing

The other version of Chicago referencing uses in-text citations. This means giving the author’s name and a year of publication in brackets when you cite a source:

As shown above, citations usually go at the end of the relevant clause. However, if the author is named in the text, we would give the citation immediately afterwards:

Furthermore, if we were quoting a source, we would give page numbers after a comma:

Here, for example, we’re quoting page 43 of the Levey source.

Finally, any source you cite should be added to a reference list. This is where you provide full publication information. Like in the footnote version of this system, the exact format here will depend on the source type. But we would list the book above as follows:

As you can see, this is similar to the format for a book in the footnote version of Chicago referencing. The only difference is the placement of the year of publication.

Chicago Bibliographies And Reference Lists

In Chicago referencing, as well as citing sources, you will need a bibliography or reference list. This is a list of every source cited in your document. The rules for this are:

  • Place the bibliography on a new page at the end of your document.
  • Title this new page “Bibliography” if you are using footnote citations, or “Reference List” if you are using author–date citations
  • List all sources alphabetically by author surname
  • The list should be single spaced, but with a blank line after each entry
  • Use a half-inch (1.27cm) hanging indent for each line after the first in each entry
  • Italicize the titles of books and other standalone publications
  • Place titles of essays, book chapters, and other short publications in quotation marks
  • Capitalize all nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in titles, but not conjunctions, prepositions, or articles unless they’re the first word in a title or subtitle

For more information on both versions of Chicago referencing, see our blog. You can also find Chicago’s own online citation guides here.

Try Us For Free

Prefer to try before you buy? We’re happy to oblige! Upload a 500-word sample of your writing, pick Chicago as your referencing style, and use the code 500FREE at checkout. We’ll check it for free and you can see how proofreading could benefit your work.

Other Referencing Styles

As well as Chicago referencing, our proofreaders are experts with the following styles:

Harvard . APA . OSCOLA . MLA

IEEE . MHRA . Vancouver

Oxford . AGLC

If you are using a referencing style not listed here, though, we can still help. Just let us know which system to use when you upload your work.

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