The Chicago Manual of Style actually sets out rules for two separate citation styles: in-text author\u2013date citations and a footnote\/bibliography system. Depending on your outlook, this dual system is either admirably versatile or unhelpfully confusing.\r\n\r\nNevertheless, whichever approach you\u2019re using, it\u2019s vital that you know how to cite a book correctly. On our academic blog today, we run through the basics for doing this using both approaches.\r\nAuthor\u2013Date Citations\r\nAs with many parenthetical referencing systems, Chicago-style author\u2013date citations require you to provide the author\u2019s surname and the date of publication in the main text when referencing a source.\r\n\r\nA citation of a book by cheeky French philosopher Paul Ricoeur would, therefore, appear as:\r\nInterpretation involves the metaphorical and speculative domains of meaning (Ricoeur 1978).\r\nIf the author is named in the text, only the year is required in the citation. The only other thing you\u2019ll need to provide in in-text citations are relevant page numbers when quoting a source:\r\nRicoeur (1978, 17) states that \u201cmetaphor is defined in terms of movement.\u201d\r\nAll cited texts should then be added to a reference list at the end of your document, with sources listed alphabetically by author surname and full publication details provided. For a book, this includes:\r\nAuthor Surname, First Name. Year of Publication. Title. City of Publication: Publisher.\r\nIn Ricoeur\u2019s case, this translates to:\r\nRicoeur, Paul. 1978. The Rule of Metaphor. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.\r\n\r\nFootnotes\/Bibliography\r\nThe other form of Chicago referencing places citations in footnotes, as indicated by superscript numbers in the main text (e.g., 1, 2, 3). The information required for the first citation of a book is:\r\nn. Author Name, Title (City of Publication: Publisher, Year), Page Number(s).\r\nReturning to our philosopher friend, the first footnote for The Rule of Metaphor would therefore appear as:\r\n1. Paul Ricoeur, The Rule of Metaphor (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978), 24.\r\nSubsequent citations of the same text can be shorted to just author surname, a shortened version of the book title and the relevant page number (or \u201cpinpoint reference,\u201d as it is otherwise known):\r\n2. Ricoeur, Rule of Metaphor, 112.\r\nAs well as footnotes, this version of Chicago referencing lists all cited texts in a bibliography at the end of the document.\r\n\r\nThe information required is similar to the first footnote, but with slightly different punctuation and the author name reversed so that sources can be listed alphabetically by surname:\r\nRicoeur, Paul. The Rule of Metaphor. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978.\r\n\r\nA Final Thought\r\nSince these two versions of Chicago referencing are very different, the single most important thing you can do before you begin writing is check which version is specified by your style guide.\r\n\r\nAlso, it\u2019s worth mentioning that Paul Ricoeur would probably have rejected being described as \u201ccheeky.\u201d Nevertheless, it\u2019s how we prefer to think of him.