In Chicago footnote referencing, you may be able to shorten citations to prevent repetition in some cases. But how does this work? Check out our guide to shortened footnotes in Chicago referencing to find out.\nShortened Footnotes for Repeat Citations in Chicago Referencing\nThe notes and bibliography version of Chicago referencing cites sources in footnotes. Typically, this means giving the full source information the first time you cite it, then shortening subsequent citations of the source to prevent repetition.\n\nThe basic format for a shortened citation in Chicago referencing is:\nn. Author\u2019s Surname, Shortened Title, page number (if available).\nFor instance, we would shorten a repeat citation for a book as follows:\n1. Ludwig Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations: The German Text, with a Revised English Translation (Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2001), 86.\n\u2026\n8. Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations, 92.\nIn the first citation above, we give the author\u2019s full name, the full title, publication information, and a page reference. But when we cite the source later in the same paper, we just give the author\u2019s surname, a shortened title, and a page number.\nShortening Author Names\nFor sources with a single author, you will typically just give their surname in shortened citations. However, there are a few variations to be aware of:\n\n \tIf you have cited sources by two or more authors with the same surname, make sure to include their initials or first names in shortened citations.\n \tFor works with two or three authors, give just their surnames in repeat citations, using "and" before the final name (not an "&" symbol).\n \tFor sources with more than three authors, only give the first listed author\u2019s surname followed by the abbreviation "et al." in repeat citations.\n\nIn addition, if you reference an editor or translator as the main creator for a source (e.g., if you are citing an edited volume in full), you can omit abbreviations such as "ed." or "trans." after their name(s) in shortened citations.\nShortening Source Titles\nThe biggest change when shortening a citation is usually the source title. You should do this for any source title more than four words long, and the key rules are:\n\n \tOmit initial articles (e.g., "the" or "a") unless strictly necessary.\n \tDo not change the order of words in the title when shortening it.\n \tFormat shortened titles in the same way as the full version (e.g., italics for books and quote marks for article titles).\n\nOften, this simply involves dropping a subtitle or another minor change, such as with the Wittgenstein example above. But if you need to make a change to the main title, make sure to keep the most important words. For instance:\n3. Craig MacAndrew and Harold Garfinkel, "A Consideration of Changes Attributed to Intoxication as Common-Sense Reasons for Getting Drunk," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 23 (1962), 256.\n\u2026\n19. MacAndrew and Garfinkel, "Common-Sense Reasons for Getting Drunk," 260.\nHere, we\u2019ve selected an easily identifiable part of the full title for the shortened citation. This will ensure readers can find the specific source cited.\nCross Referencing Sources\nIn longer works, where citations may be far apart from one another, the Chicago style suggests cross-referencing footnote citations. For instance:\n1. Ludwig Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations: The German Text, with a Revised English Translation (Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2001), 86.\n\u2026\n64. Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations, 92 (see chap 1., n. 1).\nHere, we cite the same source in the first and sixty-fourth footnotes of a paper. And since they are far apart, we include a note in the second citation indicating where the first footnote \u2013 and thus the full source information \u2013 can be found.\nIbid. and Successive Citations\nOlder versions of Chicago referencing used the abbreviation "ibid." when citing the same source multiple times in succession. However, the most recent (17th) edition recommends using shortened citations instead.\n\nTo prevent repetition of the title when doing this, you can omit this detail:\n1. Ludwig Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations: The German Text, with a Revised English Translation (Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2001), 86.\n2. Wittgenstein, 92.\n3. Wittgenstein, 154.\nHere, for instance, all three citations reference the Philosophical Investigations. However, this only works for successive citations. If you cite another source at any point between citations, make sure to include a shortened title as well for clarity.\nUsing Shortened Footnotes with a Bibliography\nChicago style also permits using only shortened citations in some cases.\n\nIn this situation, you only give the full publication information for sources in a bibliography, then use the shortened footnote format above from the first citation.\n\nThis can be useful for shorter papers where the reader can easily check the bibliography whenever they see a new source cited. However, you should always check with your professor (or editor) before using this style.\nChicago Referencing Proofreading\nWe hope you\u2019ve found this guide to shortened footnotes in Chicago referencing helpful. If you\u2019d like any more assistance with your academic writing, we have proofreaders who can help. Submit a trial document today to find out more.