Do you feel like something is missing from your life? Well, if what you\u2019re missing is source information for a college paper, you\u2019re in the right place! That\u2019s because, in this post, we\u2019re looking at how to handle missing information in Chicago author\u2013date referencing.\nNo Named Author\nFinding that a source doesn\u2019t have a named author is a common problem. The best response is usually to cite an organizational author.\n\nFor example, if we were citing a UNICEF report without a named author in Chicago author\u2013date referencing, we could write:\nRecent campaigns have been more successful (UNICEF 2017).\nYou would then use the organization name in the reference list at the end of the document, too. However, if there is no suitable organizational author to cite, the Chicago Manual of Style recommends using the source title instead. If the title is too long, though, you may want to shorten it in citations:\nIn-Text Citation\nThe organization has been criticized (\u201cProblems with Planning\u2026\u201d 2015).\nReference List Entry\n\u201cProblems with Planning for a Sustainable Future on an International Scale.\u201d 2015. Accessed 28 August, 2018. https:\/\/medium.com\/story\/problems-planning-sustainable-future-international-scale-44a21e9c531\nThe title is in quote marks here because it is an article. However, the correct formatting depends on the source type (e.g., italics for a book title).\nNo Year of Publication\nWhen a source does not specify a year of publication, use the abbreviation \u201cn.d.\u201d after a comma:\nThe public was canvassed for solutions (Jackson, n.d.).\nThis stands for \u201cno date.\u201d You should also use \u201cn.d.\u201d in the reference list entry for the source at the end of your document.\n\nHowever, \u201cn.d.\u201d is only used for an online source when it doesn\u2019t have either:\n\n \tA date of publication\n \tOr a date for when the page was last updated\n\nIf either of these are available, use them instead. Remember to check the web page carefully, too, as this information will not always be easy to spot.\nNo Place of Publication or Publisher\nIn a Chicago reference list, you should list books with a place of publication and publisher. But if you cannot find either of these details, you can use the abbreviation \u201cn.p.\u201d instead. This is short for either \u201cno place\u201d or \u201cno publisher\u201d depending on how it is used.\n\nYou could use other Latin abbreviations to avoid this ambiguity: e.g., \u201cs.l.\u201d and \u201cs.n.,\u201d which stand for sine loco (without a place of publication) and sine nomine (without a named publisher) respectively.\n\nHowever, the Chicago Manual of Style says that \u201cn.p.\u201d is more likely to be understood in English-language publications. You should therefore use this unless instructed otherwise.\nSummary: Missing Information in Chicago Referencing\nChicago referencing indicates missing information as follows:\n\n \tNo author = Use the source title instead\n \tNo year of publication = Use the abbreviation \u201cn.d.\u201d\n \tNo place of publication = Use the abbreviation \u201cn.p.\u201d\n \tNo publisher = Use the abbreviation \u201cn.p.\u201d\n\nHowever, remember to check before using these options. The information will be available somewhere in most cases, even if it is not immediately easy to see. And if you need help checking your referencing, get in touch today.